Vitamin K1, K2 Supplements - Foods, Source, Information by Life Extension

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Vitamin K1, K2 Supplements - Foods, Source, Information - Dose

Super K with Advanced K2 Complex
90 softgels

Vitamin K is found in green leafy vegetables as well as fermented foods.  Of the two types of naturally occurring vitamin K, absorption of phylloquinone from plant foods is poor and the small amounts of menaquinone produced by intestinal bacteria provide only a minor portion of daily requirements.  Vitamin K1 is called phylloquinone or meaquinone, and vitamin K2 is called menaquinone, which can be synthesized by bacteria in the gut and absorbed in the intestines.  Bacteria present in the human bowel produces Vitamin K2.

Life Extensions Super K provides 1000 mcg of K1 (phylloquinone) along with 1100 mcg of K2 (menaquinone) in each oil-based softgel.  Adding K2 to this product guarantees users the most consistent potency.

There are three different types of vitamin K:  K1 which is from plants, K2 which is made by bacteria and K3 which is synthetic.  Vitamin K3 is generally regarded as toxic because it generates free radicals.  K2, specifically, helps calcium and phosphorus benefit the heart.  The body converts K1 to K2.

Supplement Facts:  Serving Size - 1 softgel.  Servings/Container - 90

Vitamin K activity from a total of 2700 mcg (2.7 mg):    Amount/Serving

Vitamin K1 (phytonadione)

1500 mcg

Vitamin K2 (as menaquinone-7) 200 mcg

Vitamin K2 (as menaquinone-4)

1000 mcg

Medium chain triglycerides (MCT oil)

215 mg

Ascorbyl Palmitate (antioxidant)

10 mg


Other ingredients:  extra virgin olive oil, gelatin, glycerin, beeswax, purified water, carob color. Non-GMO

Dosage and Use:  One softgel daily with a meal, or as directed by a healthcare professional.

One of Vitamin K's primary function is to regulate normal blood clotting (due to its role in the synthesis of prothrombin).  Vitamin K1 is destroyed by sunlight, unaffected by diluted acids but destroyed by basic solution and transformed by reducing agents.

The Vitamin K content of most foods is very low.  We get the majority of our vitamin K from leafy green vegetables such as spinach, kale, parsley, and  broccoli.  In addition, vegetable oils such as soybean, cottonseed, canola and olive contain K.

They contain moderate amounts (so if you don't eat these foods regularly, then you are unlikely to consume enough vitamin K).  It is worth noting that the absorption of vitamin K from vegetables is likely enhanced by the presence of dietary fat in the same meal, just as occurs with two other fat soluble vitamins, vitamins D and E.  Unless you are a "greens" lover you might find it difficult to consume 1000 mcg (1 mg) of vitamin K in foods.  Studies, in fact, suggest that the absorption of K1 from a softgel is considerably higher than the absorption from vegetables.

Foods Highest in Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone)

  mcg of Vitamin K1 per 1/2 cup
Kale, cooked 630 mcg (not mg)
Collard greens, cooked 520
Spinach, cooked 510
Turnip greens, cooked 425
Beet greens, cooked 350
Mustard greens, cooked 270
Brussells sprouts, cooked 210
Broccoli, cooked 110
Dandelion greens, cooked 102
Parsley, 10 sprigs 90
Lettuce, boston and bibb, raw 90
Asparagus, cooked 75
Sauerkraut 70
Lettuce, green leaf, raw 50
Lettuce, romaine 25

Reference:  USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 16

The richest natural source of vitamin K2 is derived from an ancient Japanese medicinal food called Natto.  Natto is made from fermented soybeans and significant amounts of vitamin K2 are produced during the fermentation process.  Natto, typically have the highest concentration of vitamin K found in the human diet and can provide several milligrams of vitamin K2 on a daily basis.  This level far exceeds the amount found in dark green vegetables.  Since most Americans do not traditionally eat fermented foods like natto, adding a K2 supplement to your diet is a must as the health benefits are tremendous.

Unlike other fat-soluble vitamins, the body does not store vitamin K.  Although the body recycles it, deficiency is common according to the latest research.  This is probably due to inadequate diet, a lack of co-factors, prescription drugs and environmental stress that place unusual demands on vitamin K reserves.

Vitamin K Regulates Calcium
Imagine a vitamin that could keep calcium in bones and out of arteries.  In addition to the clotting factor, Vitamin K helps regulate calcium.  Bones need it, arteries can't stand it. Vitamin K accommodates both.

Vitamin K works through gamma-carboxyglutamic acid.  Gamma-carboxyglutamic acid is part of a certain kind of protein that controls calcium.  Fifteen such proteins have been found so far; and researchers believe there are at least one hundred scattered throughout the body.  Vitamin K makes them work and it is the only vitamin that does.

Vitamin K performs a feat on proteins called "carboxylation."  Carboxylation gives the proteins claws so they can hold onto calcium.  Once the protein grabs onto calcium, it can be moved around.  Proteins that don't get enough vitamin K don't have "the claws."  They're "undercarboxylated" and can't control the mineral.  Without a functioning protein to control it, calcium drifts out of bone and into arteries and other soft tissue where it can cause havoc.

The most famous protein is osteocalcin.  You may have heard of osteocalcin in connection with bone density.  What you might not have heard is that it requires vitamin K to work.  Undercarboxylated osteocalcin (osteocalcin without vitamin K) can't regulate calcium.  When this happens, calcium leaves bone and teeth.  Women with "undercarboxylated osteocalcin" excrete calcium, and their bones become porous. Vitamin K reverses this trend.

Vitamin D
You may be asking, "Wait a minute, I thought vitamin D was the bone vitamin?"  You are right!  Vitamin D plays several roles in bone.  One of them is provoking the osteocalcin gene into action.  Once synthesized, however, osteocalcin needs vitamin K to function properly.

Vitamin D has dominated discussion on bone because it is a hormone that acts swiftly and dramatically.  But the slower-acting vitamin K is just as important.  And, although it doesn't act as quickly on bone as vitamin D, new research indicates that vitamin K may actually be more of a hormone than currently appreciated.

The truth is that although vitamin D has gotten a lot of press as the bone vitamin, bone maintenance requires many factors; among them, parathyroid hormone, estrogen, calcium and calcitonin (another thyroid hormone).  When all of these factors plus vitamin K are present in adequate amounts, the skeleton will be totally replaced every 8 to 10 years with good, dense bone. If not, problems can occur.

Vitamin K Considerations

  • Very high amounts of vitamin E can interfere with vitamin K.  The oxidized form of E known as tocopherylquinone interferes with vitamin K's ability to carboxylate coagulation proteins.  But, it takes thousands of IUs a day to create this effect.  Supplemental vitamin E in the normal range of up to 1200 IU/day will not affect vitamin K or blood coagulation, unless vitamin K is perilously low.

  • Antibiotics wipe out intestinal flora, which are a source of vitamin K2.

  • Cholesterol-reducing drugs, low-fat diets, Olestra, and anything else that interferes with fat reduces vitamin K.  Vitamin K is carted around the body by lipoproteins -- the same proteins that carry cholesterol.  In order for vitamin K to be absorbed, there must be some fat present.

  • Mineral oil laxatives interfere with the absorption of vitamin K.  BHT, the synthetic food preservative, can interfere with vitamin K.

  • Liver disease, gastrointestinal diseases, gall-stones, synthetic estrogens and anything else that interferes with the gut or bile can cause vitamin K deficiency.

  • Dietary restriction or dieting.  Dietary restriction only enhances longevity if all nutrients are maintained at high levels.  And, watch out for low-fat diets.  It's the oil in the salad dressing that enables the vitamin K in your salad to be absorbed.  Also, be careful about diets such as high-protein meat diets that are devoid of green vegetables.

Vitamin K1, K2 Supplements - Page 2 | Pg 3 | References | Cream | Vitamin K and Newborns

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